(1) Speculative Theology: The rejection of philosophy as a science independent of faith and yet capable of contributing to the understanding of faith has placed upon the sacred text the impossible task of alone answering speculative inquiries into the sacred mysteries. This explains why contemporary Evangelical Theology has little in common with the subject matter of Patristic Theology.
(2) Dogmatic Theology: The exclusively forensic understanding of the nature of salvation results in an embellished and imbalanced emphasis on this particular aspect of the economical role of the Redeemer at the expense of the more important mystery of his God-revealing and communicating personality as expressed in the Nicene and Chalcedonian dogmas.
(3) Spiritual Theology: The idea of imputed righteousness undermines Apostolical and Patristic soteriology which is grounded in the indwelling of the Holy Trinity and the corresponding real communication of the divine nature. If the distinguishing mark of justification (which signifies the bond of peace and friendship between God and humans) is its total externality, then the Petrine doctrine of “partaking of the divine nature” and the Athanasian doctrine of the Incarnation must be reckoned a different Gospel.
(4) Moral Theology: A purely passive participation in salvation is not a human participation since it is not according to properly human acts. Minus free and rational participation, salvation becomes an impersonal process that must ignore the human person qua person in order to accomplish its end. Similarly, its end cannot be the perfection of the human person as the Image of God in Christ for such an image could not but be free.